Origins[ edit ] One of humanistic psychology's early sources was the work of Carl Rogerswho was strongly influenced by Otto Rankwho broke with Freud in the mids. Rogers' focus was to ensure that the developmental processes led to healthier, if not more creative, personality functioning. The term 'actualizing tendency' was also coined by Rogers, and was a concept that eventually led Abraham Maslow to study self-actualization as one of the needs of humans. Conceptual origins[ edit ] The humanistic approach has its roots in phenomenological and existentialist thought  see KierkegaardNietzscheHeideggerMerleau-Ponty and Sartre.
Schizophrenia and Neurotransmitters May 12, Viewed: Researchers can study structure by comparing the brain anatomy in people with schizophrenia to brain anatomy in people without schizophrenia. Ventricle size is a good example of a structural anatomical difference seen in schizophreniawhereas frontal lobe activity is a good example of a functional anatomical difference seen in schizophrenia.
Another area of interest to researchers is communication within the brain. Studying communication in the brain, a process carried out by substances called neurotransmitters, can help reveal even more about how the brains of people with schizophrenia differ from the brains of people without it.
Studying neurotransmitters can reveal both structural and functional differences Psy study guide the schizophrenic brain. Next, we will discuss how neurotransmitters work and how they appear to be implicated in schizophrenia symptoms. Brain cells, called neurons, are responsive to different kinds of neurotransmitters and have receptors built specifically for them.
Neurons that are sensitive to specific neurotransmitters tend to cluster together, creating circuits in the brain for processing specific kinds of information. Neurotransmitters are released from a neuron when it signals another brain cell. The neurotransmitters are released into the small space between the two neurons, called the synapse.
In the synapse, the neurotransmitters attach, or bind, to the receptors at the ends of another neuron, thus affecting the activity of the new neuron. The new neuron takes in as much of the neurotransmitter as it can and then releases the excess back into the synapse. The excess is reabsorbed by the first neuron, a process known as reuptake.
Drugs that treat mood disorders like depression e. Prozac, zoloft regulate the amount of certain neurotransmitters available in the brain and the process of neurotransmitter reuptake, and affect communication between brain cells.
The neurotransmitters will cross the gap and bond to the receptors of the adjacent cell, which is how information is transmitted along the nervous system.
There are many different neurotransmitters in the brain. Two that have been found to be involved in schizophrenia symptoms are dopamine and glutamate. Dopamine is primarily involved in movement and thoughts.
Dopamine has also been associated with novelty seeking, or interest in new experiences and reward. Some illegal drugs, such as cocaine and methamphetamine, work by affecting dopamine function in the brain. Thus, dopamine is associated with feelings of pleasure and well-being.
Dopamine pathways in the brain are highly specialized and may influence different kinds of thinking or behavior. People with high levels of dopamine in certain parts of the brain may also experience psychotic symptoms or paranoid thinking, symptoms of schizophrenia. Due to several lines of converging evidence, many scientists believe that dopamine is the cause of many schizophrenic symptoms.
Ina drug called clorpromazine was first used to treat schizophrenia. It worked by blocking dopamine receptors and was successful in treating many schizophrenia patients.
A second observation involved the effects of amphetamines.
Amphetamines work by making the brain think that there is too much dopamine in the system. People who abuse amphetamines often experience schizophrenia -like symptoms, primarily paranoia and auditory hallucinations. This drug, called L-DOPA, has been associated with complications or side effects that look a lot like schizophrenic symptoms.
Patients treated with L-DOPA sometimes experience psychotic symptoms, which provide researchers with more evidence that high levels of dopamine in some parts of the brain are implicated in schizophrenia.
When the brain perceives that there is an excess of dopamine, schizophrenic-like symptoms appear. Do some people produce too much dopamine? Is the breakdown of dopamine somehow inhibited in some people?Psychology is a broad field that encompasses the study of human thought, behavior, development, personality, emotion, motivation, and more.
Gaining a richer and deeper understanding of psychology can help people achieve insights into their own actions as well as a better understanding of others. When you hit the books - and they hit back!
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CH. 1 Psychology-scientific study of behavior and mental processes Perspectives (Then) Structuralism-Titchener. Focus of the study was the structure of the mind.
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