From Paris to Frankfurt to Budapest to Naples, liberal protesters rose up against the conservative establishment.
Adam Marjai Why did the Habsburg Empire remain stable in the era of the greatest nationalist activity? By the end ofthe Springtime of Peoples was over and the independence wars that strived for national autonomy within the Habsburg Empire had been defeated.
Yet his personality in itself was not enough to save the Monarchy from nationalist activism. In my essay, I am going to argue that besides the establishment of neo-absolutism, the Habsburg Empire remained stable in the period from because the nationalists realized that their interests could be best served within the Monarchy.
In the second part of the essay, I am going to use and discuss the argument made by Bruce E. Pauley that the nationalities were better off with the Monarchy than without.
He reintroduced the original court etiquette and ceremonial protocol which presented the emperor in the eyes of the general public as a powerful king who ruled over them.
The court not only changed its appearance to the public, but it also became more efficient. The meritocratic system can perhaps be best exemplified by the various Orders that were given to people with extraordinary achievements by the emperor which promoted them to nobility.
For example, in The Radetzky March, Trotta is an ordinary infantry lieutenant who saved the life of the emperor in the Battle of Solferino, thereby receiving the Maria Theresa Order and becoming a knight.
All the descendants of Trotta stayed loyal to the emperor, serving either in the military or working for the government. In my opinion, giving out these titles in order to maintain long-term dynastic loyalty was very successful, because of the traditional family values of the time.
As it can be seen in The Radetzky March, the sons of Trottas were loyal to their fathers and followed their wishes by taking up the professions they were told. The emperor knew that he only had to appeal to one member of the family in order for the descendants of this person to forever remain loyal.
Other successful ways to build connections between the public and the emperor were the imperial inspection tours and imperial visitations Kaiserreisen of the crown lands, when the emperor himself went to observe the people of his empire. Habsburg Imperial Celebrations after the Revolutions of Maria Bucur- Deckard and Nancy M.
On these trips, the imperial court and the government also used the army, police and court etiquette to enhance the image of the emperor. It not only encouraged the soldiers to fight, but to fight in the name of their emperor.
This also gave the opportunity for Trotta to save His Majesty. When the emperor interacted with the public, people felt as if they could turn to him for help. By doing this, not only did they accept the legitimacy of the emperor, the military and the bureaucracy acted in accordance with his authority.
The defeat in did not put an end to the nationalist movements. Outsiders perceived the Monarchy as some kind of prison of nationalities. Popular uprisings against the Monarchy were never mentioned in newspapers. The government utilized the official newspapers in order to promote the image of the emperor.
Reasserting the Empire p. Stirring Times in Austria. The army remained under the full control of the emperor until the very end of the Monarchy.
The Habsburg military was one of the largest in Europe at the time, and it was exclusively loyal to Franz Joseph. The book also accounts for the necessity of the army in times of uprisings.
For example, when the bristle factory workers went on strike, the governor in office contacted the Army High Command that soon put an end to the uproar.
Sometimes just their presence was enough to deter people from rebellions. When Franz Joseph went on the inspection tours, he was accompanied by a strong army in order to prevent nationalist nobles from lynching the emperor, yet it is important to note that this loyal army was composed of members of all the Habsburg nationalities.
Nationalist interests of keeping the Monarchy stable In 19th century Europe, the Habsburg empire existed between two great powers: Although it is true that in the aftermath of the revolutions the Habsburg government often used the army to put down rebellious groups and applied rigorous censorship, it also carried out several constitutional changes, made compromises with nationalities, and opened up the Austrian parliament to the public by introducing universal manhood suffrage.
Between andneo-absolutism as a form of governing went through a series of reforms. After the bloody retributions followinglike what happened in Hungary where the generals of the revolution and the prime minister were executed, the imperial government eased-up on its authority and started making compromises with nationalities.
Excerpts - Walter Farleigh Dodd. Under these circumstances a revolution probably would have been fatal to the integrity of the Habsburg Empire, so in order to prevent this Franz Joseph offered a very generous compromise.
As a result of this compromise, the Habsburg Empire became a constitutional Monarchy in which Hungary had complete independence in internal affairs such as justice, education, and transportation, as well an equal voice in common imperial affairs involving defense, diplomacy, and joint finance.
It can be seen that even rebellious nationalities, such as the Hungarians, felt that their interest was well served within the Monarchy due to these constitutional changes. Despite their dominant status in the Dual Monarchy, the Germans and the Hungarians made further compromises with other nationalities to prevent conflicts.Revolutions of Series of revolutions in European countries which broke out within a few months of each other.
The general cause was the frustration of liberals and nationalists with the governing authorities, and a background of economic depression. The revolutions of especially influenced the peoples of Eastern Europe under Hapsburg and Ottoman rule as well as the peoples of Italy and Germany in Central Europe.
Eastern Europe Especially the Balkans in the southeast, saw national independence from foreign rule, rather than national unity, as the critical issue. Why did the Habsburg Empire remain stable in the era () of the greatest nationalist activity?
By the end of , the Springtime of Peoples was over and the independence wars that strived for national autonomy within the Habsburg Empire had been defeated. The Revolutions of , known in some countries as the Spring of Nations, People's Spring, Springtime of the Peoples, or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in Location: Western and Central Europe.
Question 5: Discuss the causes of the revolutions in Europe. While studying the history of Europe, one cannot omit the revolutions. Soon after the New Year, Europe exploded in revolutions as Mike Rapport stated, “in a violent storm of revolutions tore through Europe.”1.
Europe during the s and in ? Causes of European Revolutions in the 19th Century: After the revolution of , Alphonse de Lamartine replaced Louis-Philippe. France became a republic ordinary people must be taken seriously • was a watershed year for Europe.