Maria Montessori's discovery of what she referred to as "the child's true normal nature" in which happened in the process of her experimental observation of young children given freedom in an environment prepared with materials designed for their self-directed learning activity. Waldorf education Waldorf education also known as Steiner or Steiner-Waldorf education is a humanistic approach to pedagogy based upon the educational philosophy of the Austrian philosopher Rudolf Steiner, the founder of anthroposophy. Learning is interdisciplinary, integrating practical, artistic, and conceptual elements.
Exemplars in recent times include : A Holistic Paradigm In trying to conceptualize peace education, it is useful at the outset to acknowledge its complexity and multidimensionality.
Thus, a major strand has as its focus the long-standing albeit increasingly destructive problem of militarization and militarism . Often, such movements can draw on local or indigenous belief or values systems faith, spirituality for guidance and inspiration. Peace surely also means that the rights, dignities and freedoms inherent in all human beings be respected and promoted.
A third substantive inspiration for peace education has emerged from the global struggles for peoples in both South and North against structural violence . Through the work of United Nations and other educational and professional agencies.
Last but not least, the vigorous environmental movement since the 70s has challenged all of humanity to live more peacefully with our natural environment . In sum, it is advocated here that a holistic paradigm of peace education is meaningfully built on the insights, analysis, Paulo freire banking concept essay and role-models that can be drawn from the diverse and increasingly convergent or at least consensus-building fields or movements of local, national and global transformation.
Indeed, as is argued later, both context or modes of peace education need to be seen as complementary and mutually reinforcing. IMF, World Bank and other aid agencies.
On the other hand, peace action often does not happen without appropriate educational processes in line with the adage that good practice relies on good theory. At the same time, peace education as explained below needs to motivate learners towards action and transformation. Last but not least, peace education at its best is also action by virtue of its role in raising critical awareness in an empowering way.
I n some cases, official aid agencies have also supported NGOs in development education work as well as grassroots empowerment projects. They also reflect the need to seek allies within official and government circles who may be empathetic to transformation towards a culture of peace.
Furthermore, million deadly landmines remain undetonated in 68 countries. Domestic violence and physically harmful practices at interpersonal, familial, institutional and community levels have also been challenged by nonformal and formal educational campaigns and programs, as has the proliferation of gun ownership and a deepening vigilante mentality in many North societies.
The role of media, other cultural and social agencies e.
The risk-taking and dedicated work of human rights campaigners to educate and mobilize citizens and institutions to resist violations and to assert rights in all spheres and levels of life is surely a vital dimension of peace education.
Amnesty International campaignsabolition of the death penalty and improved rights of marginalized sectors e. Rather, as the wisdom of indigenous people worldwide advises, we need to live in ways that care for the seven generations. Secondly, it must talk about green justice, so that environmentalist agendas simultaneously enable peoples to met their basic needs and rights free from structural violence.
Likewise, North-South relationships must also be just so that earthly resources can be sustainably used for improving the quality of life for all peoples rather than be accumulated by a few countries or elite sectors. As the following exemplars demonstrate, environmental education and action can decisively contribute to a culture of peace.
AASCODE has expanded into cooperative-managed native tree nurseries and educating neighbouring villages on their successful strategies for community-controlled and environmentally just development.
Examples like the green belt movement in Kenya or ORAP Organization of Rural Associations for Progress in Zimbabwe have enabled women to reverse ecological destruction and generate community controlled resources for equitable sharing. Conscientized through a basic ecclesial community seminar in ecology, the Lianga villagers organized LECO to educate and mobilize their communities in tree-planting, public information campaigns despite intimidation by paramilitary personnelmonitoring logging and illegal fishing activities including gathering evidence for prosecuting offenderslobbying for official closure of furniture firms using a protected hardwood species or preventing illegal conversion of mangroves into commercial fishponds, and alternative sustainable agricultural methods.
While initial emphasis has been placed on educating children to be personally and socially green and for schools to be environmentally friendly e. As the following exemplars illustrate, peace education to promote active harmony among cultures are as much needed in North as in South contexts. Kalinaw Mindanao, for example, promotes as part of its nonformal peace education activities in the Philippines a deep appreciation for indigenous or traditional strategies of nonviolent conflict resolution.
In promoting respect among cultures, mutual learnings and adaptation of indigenous values and strategies can be most constructive to building a culture of peace.
In a parallel spirit, spokespersons of major faiths e. In cultivating inner peace, peoples from diverse traditions, faiths and cultures are better prepared ethically, emotionally and spiritually to work for outer or societal peace. But will this help to dismantle structures of violence and injustice?
Education that renews the roots of inner peacewhile indeed essential, hence needs to integrally link with empowerment for structural transformation, as suggested by the following exemplars.
At the same time, such interiorization goes hand in hand with critical social analysis that challenges members to work for more peaceful, just communities and the larger society.
Four such principles can be discerned : Holism constitutes a first essential pedagogical principle, as earlier noted. Holism also applies in not isolating various levels and modes of peace education as being more superior or inferior. Peace education cannot also be limited to the very marginalized and oppressed; by reaching out to the non-poor, advantaged, governing and elite sectors of society, it may be possible to develop allies for transformation and reveal points of potential influence.
Recognizing that all knowledge is never free of values, the peace educator constantly encourages learners to surface innermost values that shape their understanding of realities and their actions in the world.Gmail is email that's intuitive, efficient, and useful.
15 GB of storage, less spam, and mobile access. Created Date: 10/5/ PM. Paulo Freire and Revolutionary Pedagogy For Social Justice by Rich Gibson Associate Professor of Education. San Diego State University. [email protected] The Importance of Education Education and learning is one of the most important processes in today’s society.
Today’s youth are tomorrow’s teachers. Challenging Students And How to Have More of Them. By Alfie Kohn. Learning by doing, a common shorthand for the idea that active participation helps students to understand ideas or acquire skills, is an established principle of progressive education.
EN > Week Two > Essay #1 Assignment Summary & Close Reading of Paulo Freire’s “The Banking Concept of Education” A very common type of writing you will produce in your academic career involves carefully reading and developing a summary of a given text.
The abi lity to engage in close reading to identify Continue reading "“The .