The Environment Who should be responsible for childhood obesity? Although obesity is a very sensitive topic, it is a pressing issue in modern culture, and it is something we cannot ignore.
Classification[ edit ] Infant mortality rate IMR is the number of deaths per 1, live births of children under one year of age. The rate for a given region is the number of children dying under one year of age, divided by the number of live births during the year, multiplied by 1, Perinatal mortality is late fetal death 22 weeks gestation to birthor death of a newborn up to one week postpartum.
Neonatal death is often attributed to inadequate access to basic medical care, during pregnancy and after delivery. The major contributors to postneonatal death are malnutrition, infectious disease, troubled pregnancy, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and problems with the home environment.
In the United States, a primary determinant of infant mortality risk is infant birth weight with lower birth weights increasing the risk of infant mortality. The determinants of low birth weight include socio-economic, psychological, behavioral and environmental Overview of childhood obesity essay.
Congenital malformations[ edit ] Congenital malformations are birth defects that babies are born with, such as cleft lip and palate, Down syndrome, and heart defects.
Often times, this occurs when the mother consumes alcohol, but it can also be a cause of genetics or have an unknown cause. Malnutrition and infectious diseases were the main cause of death in more undeveloped countries.
These birth defects mostly had to do with heart and central nervous system.
In the 19th century, there was a decrease in the number of infant deaths from heart diseases. As compared with normal-birth-weight infants, those with low weight at birth are almost 40 times more likely to die in the neonatal period; for infants with very low weight at birth the relative risk of neonatal death is almost times greater.
LBW may be the leading cause of infant deaths, and it is greatly preventable. Although it is preventable, the solutions may not be the easiest but effective programs to help prevent LBW are a combination of health care, education, environment, mental modification and public policy, influencing a culture supporting lifestyle.
Reasons for this include teenage pregnancyincrease in pregnant mothers over the age of thirty-five, increase in the use of in-vitro fertilization which increases the risk of multiple births, obesity and diabetes. Also, women who do not have access to health care are less likely to visit a doctor, therefore increasing their risk of delivering prematurely.
Sudden infant death syndrome Sudden infant death syndrome SIDS is a syndrome where an infant dies in their sleep with no reason behind it. Even with a complete autopsy, no one has been able to figure out what causes this disease.
This disease is more common in Western countries. Scientists have also discovered three causes within a model they created called, the contemporary triple risk model.
This model states that three conditions such as the mother smoking while pregnant, the age of the infant, and stress referring to conditions such as overheating, prone sleeping, co-sleeping, and head covering. Malnutrition in children Malnutrition or undernutrition is defined as inadequate intake of nourishment, such as proteins and vitamins, which adversely affects the growth, energy and development of people all over the world.
It is estimated that about 3. Adverse effects of malnutrition[ edit ] Children suffering from malnutrition face adverse physical effects such as stunting, wasting, or being overweight.
In Africa the number of stunted children has risen, while Asia holds the most children under 5 suffering from wasting. Micronutrient deficiency such as iron has been linked to children with anemia, fatigue, and poor brain development. Newborns can acquire infections during birth from bacteria that are present in their mother's reproductive tract.
The mother may not be aware of the infection, or she may have an untreated pelvic inflammatory disease or sexually transmitted disease. These bacteria can move up the vaginal canal into the amniotic sac surrounding the baby.
Maternal blood-borne infection is another route of bacterial infection from mother to baby. Neonatal infection is also more likely with the premature rupture of the membranes PROM of the amniotic sac. Measles is the fifth-largest cause of childhood mortality.
A few public health measures used to lower levels of iron deficiency anemia include iodize salt or drinking water, and include vitamin A and multivitamin supplements into a mother's diet.
Water contaminated with various pathogens houses a host of parasitic and microbial infections. Infectious disease and parasites are carried via water pollution from animal wastes. For example, the inaccessibility of clean water exacerbates poor sanitation conditions.
Short-term and long-term effects of ambient air pollution are associated with an increased mortality rate, including infant mortality.Childhood Obesity: Causes and Prevention – Essay Sample Childhood obesity is a major concern for parents, teachers, and the medical community with differing philosophies and .
Published: Thu, 11 May Health promotion is a new public health initiative which has been integrated into governmental strategies to improve health either within a .
Evidence-based analysis and rigorous evaluation are critical tools to promote effective policies and strong management in the Federal nutrition assistance programs.
The Office of Policy Support (OPS) leads the development and execution of FNS's study and evaluation agenda.
This web page is intended to provide access to OPS's work to program partners, other stakeholders, and the general public. Childhood Obesity has become an epidemic in America.
Although it seems that the main concern with obesity is about external appearances, the true problem lies with the health problems associated with it. According to the CDC, obesity can lead to heart disease, type II diabetes, high blood pressure /5(13).
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