The possible tripartite world of Europe-China-Russia poses a huge challenge to U. The road ahead for the Trump Administration is full of possible jarring potholes, which would be familiar to all three of our geopolitical theorists — Mackinder, Mahan, and Spykman. The future is being seen through a glass darkly, indeed! We responded, shortly thereafter, with a brilliant military campaign in Afghanistan utilizing U.
This was the largest, most populous, and richest of all possible land combinations. The Heartland lay at the centre of the world island, Heartland-rimland thesis from the Volga to the Yangtze and from the Himalayas to the Arctic. Strategic importance of Eastern Europe[ edit ] Later, inMackinder summarised his theory as: The vital question was how to secure control for the Heartland.
This question may seem pointless, since in the Russian Empire had ruled most of the area from the Volga to Eastern Siberia for centuries.
But throughout the nineteenth century: The West European powers had combined, usually successfully, in the Great Game to prevent Russian expansion.
The Russian Empire was huge but socially, politically and technologically backward—i.
Mackinder held that effective political domination of the Heartland by a single power had been unattainable in the past because: The Heartland was protected from sea power by ice to the north and mountains and deserts to the south.
Previous land invasions from east to west and vice versa were unsuccessful because lack of efficient transportation made it impossible to assure a continual stream of men and supplies. He outlined the following ways in which the Heartland might become a springboard for global domination in the twentieth century Sempa, Successful invasion of Russia by a West European nation most probably Germany.
As Eurasia began to be covered by an extensive network of railroads, there was an excellent chance that a powerful continental nation could extend its political control over the Eastern European gateway to the Eurasian landmass.
Before both countries were ruled by autocrats the Tsar and the Kaiserand both could have been attracted to an alliance against the democratic powers of Western Europe the US was isolationist regarding European affairs, until it became a participant of World War I in Germany would have contributed to such an alliance its formidable army and its large and growing sea power.
Conquest of Russia by a Sino-Japanese empire see below. Influence of the theory on foreign and military policy[ edit ] Colour representation, using a modern projection of the world.
There is a significant geographical overlap between the Heartland or "Pivot Area" and the Intermediate Region, with the exception of Germany - Prussia and north-eastern Chinawhich Kitsikis excludes from the Intermediate Region.
However, the roles of both the Intermediate Region and the Heartland are regarded by their respective authors as being pivotal in the shaping of world history. Criticism[ edit ] K.Jun 02, · This feature is not available right now. Please try again later.
Mackinder’s Heartland Theory – Explained! Article shared by: ADVERTISEMENTS: Mackinder’s Heartland Theory: Mackinder gave this theory in This theory regards political history as a continuous struggle between land and sea powers with the . The Revenge of Geography: What the Map Tells Us About Coming Conflicts and the Battle Against Fate by Robert D.
Kaplan - Chapters VI-VIII, The Rimland Thesis, The Allure of Sea Power, The Crisis of Room summary and analysis. Asia’s Mediterranean: Strategy, Geopolitics, and Risk in the Seas of the Indo-Pacific. oft-misunderstood “heartland” thesis. during the darkest days of World War II, the Yale geopolitical thinker Nicholas John Spykman returned to the rimland thesis, and further modified it to take into account recent great power warfare in the.
Finally, the thesis shows that Spykman's Rimland theory offers a good explanation for the actions of the United States and China, but is less relevant to India.
It does however, adequately explain the basis of American power, and how China is a threat to that. Heartland – Rimland Alliance. Today, China has resumed its interest in the sea and is expanding its navy and merchant fleets at a fast and impressive rate. China is also resurrecting its ancient Silk Road trade connections westward through Europe with its One Belt, One Road project (OBOR) announced in This project has both a land component – the Silk Road Economic Belt – as well as a sea-going one, .