See Article History Alternative Titles: Ballet dancers and women at their toilette would preoccupy him throughout his career. Degas was the only Impressionist to truly bridge the gap between traditional academic art and the radical movements of the early 20th century, a restless innovator who often set the pace for his younger colleagues. Acknowledged as one of the finest draftsmen of his age, Degas experimented with a wide variety of media, including oilpastelgouacheetchinglithographymonotypewax modeling, and photography.
Overview When your teachers or professors ask you to analyze a literary text, they often look for something frequently called close reading.
Close reading is deep analysis of how a literary text works; it is both a reading process and something you include in a literary analysis paper, though in a refined form. Fiction writers and poets build texts out of many central components, including subject, form, and specific word choices.
Literary analysis involves examining these components, which allows us to find in small parts of the text clues to help us understand the whole. For example, if an author writes a novel in the form of a personal journal about a character's daily life, but that journal reads like a series of lab reports, what do we learn about that character?
What is the effect of picking a word like "tome" instead of "book"? In effect, you are putting the author's choices under a microscope. The process of close reading should produce a lot of questions. It is when you begin to answer these questions that you are ready to participate thoughtfully in class discussion or write a literary analysis paper that makes the most of your close reading work.
Close reading sometimes feels like over-analyzing, but don't worry. Close reading is a process of finding as much information as you can in order form to as many questions as you can.
When it is time to write your paper and formalize your close reading, you will sort through your work to figure out what is most convincing and helpful to the argument you hope to make and, conversely, what seems like a stretch.
This guide imagines you are sitting down to read a text for the first time on your way to developing an argument about a text and writing a paper. To give one example of how to do this, we will read the poem "Design" by famous American poet Robert Frost and attend to four major components of literary texts: If you want even more information about approaching poems specifically, take a look at our guide: How to Read a Poem.
Make notes in the margins, underline important words, place question marks where you are confused by something.
Of course, if you are reading in a library book, you should keep all your notes on a separate piece of paper. If you are not making marks directly on, in, and beside the text, be sure to note line numbers or even quote portions of the text so you have enough context to remember what you found interesting.
Design I found a dimpled spider, fat and white, On a white heal-all, holding up a moth Like a white piece of rigid satin cloth— Assorted characters of death and blight Mixed ready to begin the morning right, Like the ingredients of a witches' broth— A snow-drop spider, a flower like a froth, And dead wings carried like a paper kite.
What had that flower to do with being white, The wayside blue and innocent heal-all? What brought the kindred spider to that height, Then steered the white moth thither in the night? What but design of darkness to appall?
What is its plot? What is its most important topic?
What image does it describe? It's easy to think of novels and stories as having plots, but sometimes it helps to think of poetry as having a kind of plot as well. When you examine the subject of a text, you want to develop some preliminary ideas about the text and make sure you understand its major concerns before you dig deeper.
Observations In "Design," the speaker describes a scene: The flower is a heal-all, the blooms of which are usually violet-blue. This heal-all is unusual. The speaker then poses a series of questions, asking why this heal-all is white instead of blue and how the spider and moth found this particular flower.
How did this situation arise? Questions The speaker's questions seem simple, but they are actually fairly nuanced. We can use them as a guide for our own as we go forward with our close reading.
Furthering the speaker's simple "how did this happen," we might ask, is the scene in this poem a manufactured situation? The white moth and white spider each use the atypical white flower as camouflage in search of sanctuary and supper respectively.
Did these flora and fauna come together for a purpose? Does the speaker have a stance about whether there is a purpose behind the scene? If so, what is it? How will other elements of the text relate to the unpleasantness and uncertainty in our first look at the poem's subject?
After thinking about local questions, we have to zoom out. Ultimately, what is this text about? When you look at a text, observe how the author has arranged it.The story opens with the first-person narrator reading in the newspaper that his younger brother -- from whom he is estranged -- has been arrested for selling and using heroin.
The brothers grew up in Harlem, where the narrator still lives. The narrator is a high school algebra teacher and he is a. Macbeth study guide contains a biography of William Shakespeare, literature essays, a complete e-text, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis.
Thorsten Botz-Bornstein Realism, Dream, and 'Strangeness' in Andrei Tarkovsky At the centre of theories of film form is the idea that the montage of different scenes produces cinematic time. Apr 05, · 🐎 Formalist Criticism - The Rocking Horse Winner.
The speaker shows the anticipation of the batter, or bat, as its waiting for the pitch.(Then states that the pitcher does not want the ball to be hit. The ball then comes zooming in and either dips or curves in a teasing fashion, or as if flirting. Waiting, pastel on paper by Edgar Degas, c. Jointly owned by the Norton Simon Art Foundation and the J. Paul Getty Museum, Malibu, Pasadena, CA In such works Degas seemed to be confronting the beginnings of a new art, where documentary description counts for little and the preoccupations with structure and expression of the early 20th century are spelled out. Two schools of formalist literary criticism developed, Some recent trends in academic literary criticism suggest that formalism may be making a comeback.
The Rocking Horse Winner. In the rocking horse winner, the year when all takes place is not specified, but some references from World War I and actual racing horses of the time tells that the story takes place in s in England.
Our analysis enables us to evaluate not only the first moment (the average waiting time) but also any order of the higher moments of the waiting time.
Moreover, in our formalism, it is possible to model the observation of the price on the internet by the customers in terms of .
- Analysis of Hills Like White Elephants by Ernest Hemingway "Hills Like White Elephants," is a short story,. It is a story about a man and a woman waiting at a .