The second, in the s and s, encouraged women to understand aspects of their own personal lives as deeply politicized, and was largely concerned with other issues of equality, such as the end to discrimination in society, in education and in the work place. The third arose in the early s as a response to perceived failures of the second-wave, and a response to the backlash against initiatives and movements created by the second-wave.
Feminism involves political and sociological theories and philosophies concerned with issues of gender difference, as well as a movement that advocates gender equality for women and campaigns for women's rights and interests.
Although the terms "feminism" and "feminist" did not gain widespread use until the s, they were already being used in the public parlance much earlier; for instance, Katherine Hepburn speaks of the "feminist movement" in the film Woman of the Year.
According to Maggie Humm and Rebecca Walker, the history of feminism can be divided into Feminine mystique betty friedan essay waves. The first feminist wave was in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the second was in the s and s, and the third extends from the s to the present.
Feminist theory emerged from these feminist movements.
It is manifest in a variety of disciplines such as feminist geography, feminist history and feminist literary criticism. Feminism has altered predominant perspectives in a wide range of areas within Western society, ranging from culture to law.
Feminist activists have campaigned for women's legal rights rights of contract, property rights, voting rights ; for women's right to bodily integrity and autonomy, for abortion rights, and for reproductive rights including access to contraception and quality prenatal care ; for protection of women and girls from domestic violence, sexual harassment and rape;for workplace rights, including maternity leave and equal pay; against misogyny; and against other forms of gender-specific discrimination against women.
During much of its history, most feminist movements and theories had leaders who were predominantly middle-class white women from Western Europe and North America. However, at least since Sojourner Truth's speech to American feminists, women of other races have proposed alternative feminisms.
Since that time, women in former European colonies and the Third World have proposed "Post-colonial" and "Third World" feminisms. Some Postcolonial Feminists, such as Chandra Talpade Mohanty, are critical of Western feminism for being ethnocentric. Black feminists, such as Angela Davis and Alice Walker, share this view.
History Simone de Beauvoir wrote that "the first time we see a woman take up her pen in defense of her sex" was Christine de Pizan who wrote Epitre au Dieu d'Amour Epistle to the God of Love in the 15th century.
Feminists and scholars have divided the movement's history into three "waves". The first wave refers mainly to women's suffrage movements of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries mainly concerned with women's right to vote.
The second wave refers to the ideas and actions associated with the women's liberation movement beginning in the s which campaigned for legal and social rights for women.
Liberal feminism asserts the equality of men and women through political and legal reform. It is an individualistic form of feminism and feminist theory, which focuses on women’s ability to show and maintain their equality through their own actions and choices. Literature Study Guides for all your favorite books! Get chapter summaries, in-depth analysis, and visual learning guides for hundreds of English Literary Classics. Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique and Sue Kaufman's Diary of a Mad Housewife Bettina Balser, the narrator of Sue Kaufman’s Diary of a Mad Housewife, is an attractive, intelligent woman living in an affluent community of New York City with her successful husband and her two charming children.
The third wave refers to a continuation of, and a reaction to the perceived failures of, second-wave feminism, beginning in the s. First wave First-wave feminism refers to an extended period of feminist activity during the nineteenth century and early twentieth century in the United Kingdom and the United States.
Originally it focused on the promotion of equal contract and property rights for women and the opposition to chattel marriage and ownership of married women and their children by their husbands.
However, by the end of the nineteenth century, activism focused primarily on gaining political power, particularly the right of women's suffrage. Yet, feminists such as Voltairine de Cleyre and Margaret Sanger were still active in campaigning for women's sexual, reproductive, and economic rights at this time.
InFlorence Nightingale established female nurses as adjuncts to the military. In Britain the Suffragettes and, possibly more effectively, the Suffragists campaigned for the women's vote. In the Representation of the People Act was passed granting the vote to women over the age of 30 who owned houses.
In this was extended to all women over twenty-one. Anthony, who each campaigned for the abolition of slavery prior to championing women's right to vote; all were strongly influenced by Quaker thought. American first-wave feminism involved a wide range of women.
Others, such as Matilda Joslyn Gage, were more radical, and expressed themselves within the National Woman Suffrage Association or individually. American first-wave feminism is considered to have ended with the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitutiongranting women the right to vote in all states.
The term first wave was coined retrospectively after the term second-wave feminism began to be used to describe a newer feminist movement that focused as much on fighting social and cultural inequalities as political inequalities.
Second wave Second-wave feminism refers to the period of activity in the early s and lasting through the late s. The scholar Imelda Whelehan suggests that the second wave was a continuation of the earlier phase of feminism involving the suffragettes in the UK and USA.
Second-wave feminism has continued to exist since that time and coexists with what is termed third-wave feminism. The scholar Estelle Freedman compares first and second-wave feminism saying that the first wave focused on rights such as suffrage, whereas the second wave was largely concerned with other issues of equality, such as ending discrimination.
The feminist activist and author Carol Hanisch coined the slogan "The Personal is Political" which became synonymous with the second wave. Second-wave feminists saw women's cultural and political inequalities as inextricably linked and encouraged women to understand aspects of their personal lives as deeply politicized and as reflecting sexist power structures.
Simone de Beauvoir and The Second Sex The French author and philosopher Simone de Beauvoir wrote novels; monographs on philosophy, politics, and social issues; essays; biographies; and an autobiography.The history of feminism comprises the narratives (chronological or thematic) of the movements and ideologies which have aimed at equal rights for caninariojana.com feminists around the world have differed in causes, goals, and intentions depending on time, culture, and country, most Western feminist historians assert that all movements that work to obtain women's rights should be considered [by whom.
"The Importance of Work" is an essay from The Feminine Mystique, by Betty Friedan. It states that women should hold jobs equivalent to men, since "women, like men, can only find their identity in work that uses their full capacities ().
This bar-code number lets you verify that you're getting exactly the right version or edition of a book. The digit and digit formats both work. The Feminine Mystique is a book written by Betty Friedan which is widely credited with sparking the beginning of second-wave feminism in the United States.
It was published on February 19, by W.
W. Norton. COURT CASE REVIEW SONG AND VIDEO!!!. Marbury v. Madison = Judicial Review.
McCulloch v. Maryland = Federal Supremacy, and the right to charter a bank. "The Power to Tax is the Power to Destroy!" Here's a list of other important John Marshall decisions. Thesis Statements and Introductions The Tutoring Center Bucks County Community College.