These actors performed in public playhouses roughly modeled on old innyards. The theaters were open to the air, had balconies surrounding the pit and stage, and held from two to three thousand people.
Shakespeare's Stratford Monument Shortly after Shakespeare's death, a monument was erected to his memory in his home town of Stratford. However, many Oxfordians believe that the monument originally depicted Shakespeare holding a sack, and that it was subsequently altered to depict him as a writer.
Their basis for thinking this is an engraving of the monument which appeared in William Dugdale's Antiquities of Warwickshire inand which depicts a monument significantly different from what we see today; Charlton Ogburn writes in The Mysterious William Shakespeare that "there seems scant room for doubt that the subject of the original sculpture was not a literary figure but a dealer in bagged commodities" p.
However, the evidence is overwhelmingly against the Oxfordian scenario. Spielmann's detailed discussion of the monumentand his demonstrations of the many errors and inconsistencies to be found in seventeenth-century engravings.
Then read David Kathman's discussion of 17th-century references to the monument, which shows that it was always seen as representing a famous poet and not a grain dealer. We have also put up illustrations of both the Stratford monument and Dugdale's rendition.
Why It's Not Queen Elizabeth Antistratfordians since the mids have found something fishy about the famous Droeshout engraving that graces the title page of the First Folio.
InLillian Schwartz tried to put a scientific gloss on such speculations when she wrote an article for Scientific American which used computer modelling to suggest that the Droeshout portrait is actually of Queen Elizabeth.
But as Terry Ross shows in this articleSchwartz's methods left a lot to be desired, and although her very tentative conclusions have been accepted as gospel by eager antistratfordians, a fresh look shows just how different Shakespeare and Elizabeth were.
Why It's Not the Earl of Oxford More than half a century before Schwartz, Oxfordian Charles Wisner Barrell wrote another article for Scientific American, in which he attempted to use X-rays to show that the so-called "Ashbourne Portrait," often taken to be of Shakespeare, is actually a painted-over portrait of the Earl of Oxford.
Yet even though Barrell's results were conclusively debunked more than 20 years ago, they're still accepted uncritically by many antistratfordians. Read David Kathman's brief article for the full story. Tudor Aristocrats and the Mythical "Stigma of Print" Oxfordians claim that Edward de Vere could not have been named as the author of Shakespeare's works because doing so would have violated the Elizabethan social code, which prohibited aristocrats from having works published under their own names.
However, as Steven May points out in his essay"the alleged code, handy and time-honored as it has become, does not square with the evidence. May does concede that there was for a time a "stigma of verse" among the early Tudor aristocrats, "but even this inhibition dissolved during the reign of Elizabeth until anyone, of whatever exalted standing in society, might issue a sonnet or play without fear of losing status.
The Survival of Manuscripts Oxfordians find it suspicious that the original manuscripts of Shakespeare's plays have not survived. They darkly hint that this is evidence of a coverup, and have even gone so far as to x-ray the Shakespeare monument in Stratford because of a suspicion that the manuscripts may have been hidden inside.
But there is nothing the slightest bit suspicious about the absence of Shakespeare's manuscripts, since virtually no playhouse manuscripts from that era have survived at all. Read The Survival of Manuscripts by Giles Dawson and Laetitia Kennedy-Skipton taken from their book Elizabethan Handwriting for the opinion of two scholars who spent decades examining documents from Shakespeare's era.
Shakespeare's Hand in Sir Thomas More Even though the original manuscripts of Shakespeare's canonical plays have not survived, there is strong evidence that three pages of the manuscript play Sir Thomas More are in Shakespeare's hand.
This evidence, which cuts across handwriting, spelling, vocabulary, imagery, and more, has persuaded many Shakespeare scholars, but is generally ignored or ridiculed by antistratfordians because accepting it would be a crippling blow for their theories.
Read David Kathman's summary of the evidence for Shakespeare's hand and judge for yourself. Oxford the Poet The Seventeenth Earl of Oxford was a recognized poet in his own day, and Oxfordians make the most of this fact in their attempts to prove that he actually wrote the works of Shakespeare.
However, most Oxfordian work in this area involves highly selective use of evidence, and often reveals a distressing lack of knowledge about Elizabethan poetry in general.
In this section we critically examine Oxford's surviving poetry and the conclusions Oxfordians have tried to draw from it. Oxford's Literary Reputation Oxford was praised in print as a poet and playwright when he was alive, a fact which Oxfordians understandably try to use to their advantage.
In doing so, though, they quote this praise selectively and present it out of context, leading unwary readers to a greatly inflated view of Oxford's reputation as a poet. Terry Ross's essay looks at Oxford's reputation in the actual context of the times, and shows that while Oxford's work had its admirers, nobody seems to have considered him a great poet or playwright.
Puttenham on Oxford If Oxford did indeed write the works of Shakespeare, why did he never acknowledge them? Oxfordians claim that the works contain dangerous political allegories, and that Oxford could not safely allow them to appear under his own name.
Hence, he used the name "Shakespeare.
However, a close examination of Puttenham's work shows that Oxfordians have relied on doctored evidence, and that Puttenham's actual words contradict the Oxfordian claim.
This case study of the Oxfordian misuse of evidence was written by Terry Ross; it appeared on the humanities. We have made available the texts of the Response from Frontline -- and a Reply. We have also made the relevant portions of Puttenham's Arte of English Poesie available.Shakespeare's Dark Lady: Amelia Bassano Lanier the woman behind Shakespeare's plays?
[John Hudson] on caninariojana.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Amelia Bassano was born in into a family of Venetian Jews who were court musicians to Queen Elizabeth I. At about the age of thirteen. BibMe Free Bibliography & Citation Maker - MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard. Jordan Peterson, author of 12 Rules for Life, talks about the book with EconTalk host Russ Roberts.
Topics covered include parenting, conversation, the role of literature in everyday life, and the relationship between sacrificial rites and trade. Sonnet 73, one of the most famous of William Shakespeare's sonnets, focuses on the theme of old caninariojana.com sonnet addresses the Fair caninariojana.com of the three quatrains contains a metaphor: Autumn, the passing of a day, and the dying out of a caninariojana.com metaphor proposes a way .
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